Agriculture Soil moisture and ph detection using IOT

Abstract : In India economy is mainly based on agriculture still we are not able to make it profitable and make sustainable use of our land resources. Main reason is lack of knowledge regarding soil. There are many types of soil present and each type of soil has different characteristics. So it is necessary to test soil characteristics. There are different tools present for soil analysis, but these tools do not give accurate and desired result every time and also farmer needs to take pain of visiting laboratory for soil analysis. But it is very difficult to test all soil types in time from laboratory. Also tools which are present for soil analysis are not in regional language. Hence there is a need of tool to do soil analysis which can be made available to the farmer. The main objective of our work is to develop a soil based fertilizer recommendations system which can be used for regional soil analysis which in turn helps the farmers to cultivate and produce the proper crop. This tool will be in regional language so farmer can understand it easily.
 Soil fertility changes with every harvest and changing weather condition and also affects the nutrient content of soil. Also fertility of soil varies at different part of field and it requires to be monitored for healthy crop production. For Testing Soil Every farmer should take the soil and travel to agriculture office and need to test there. so it will take more time to test soil in lab.
 One accumulator Register-bank switching is required to access the entire RAM of many devices Operations and registers are not orthogonal; some instructions can address RAM and/or immediate constants, while others can use the accumulator only. The following stack limitations have been addressed in the PIC18 series, but still apply to earlier cores: The hardware call stack is not addressable, so preemptive task switching cannot be implemented Software-implemented stacks are not efficient, so it is difficult to generate reentrant code and support local variables
 The objective of proposed system is to replace the traditional farming technique of testing soil fertility by the automated remotely monitored fertility monitoring technique. In this system the farmer gets current status of soil fertility in his land at real time. The soil quality is determined by using the sensors to calculate the soil nutrient contents i.e. nitrogen, phosphorus and potassium (NPK). The farmer tests multiple sample of soil in his land using a portable device. Result of each test is averaged to determine the approximate fertility of total land. Result of all the tests will be displayed on display screen. The farmer physically enters the displayed value in his mobile application to get a digitally generated soil fertility e-report.
 Small instruction set to learn RISC architecture Built in oscillator with selectable speeds Easy entry level, in-circuit programming plus in-circuit debugging PICKit units available for less than $50 Inexpensive microcontrollers Wide range of interfaces including I²C, SPI, USB, USART, A/D, programmable comparators, PWM, LIN, CAN, PSP, and Ethernet[9] Availability of processors in DIL package make them easy to handle for hobby use.
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