Enhancing Remembrance of Password as an Image

Abstract : This paper focuses on changing the system of having ‘text’ as password as people tend to often forget their passwords and have to recover it. Proposing the system of having picture as a password which is kept encrypted in a database and decrypted and matched to check for authorization of user. It has been scientifically proven that it’s easier for a human mind to remember a picture, something they can see rather than text.
 • We argue that this is because existing password schemes do not fully leverage humans’ cognitive strengths, and we thus examine techniques to enhance password memorability that incorporate scientific understanding of long-term memory. • All of these were significantly higher than the control conditions representing existing graphical password schemes. • In existing cognometric graphical password schemes, mouse input is used to select an image, where the images in a portfolio remain the same but are positioned randomly each time that a portfolio is loaded to compensate for shoulder surfing risk during login. • The existing recognition based schemes are presented through our control conditions, FaceR and ObjectR schemes also use mouse input to select images. • FaceR and ObjectR schemes represent existing graphical password schemes that use just the visual memory of users. • This was done to keep the control conditions the same as existing cognometric schemes while ensuring reasonable protection from shoulder surfing in the spatial-cue conditions. • That verbal cues and user interaction made an important contribution to gain significantly higher login success rate as compared to the control conditions representing existing graphical password schemes.
 • Traditional user-chosen textual passwords suffer from security problems because of password reuse and predictable patterns. • The usability and security problems of using cognitive questions for authentication, and several other studies point out the vulnerability of this approach to targeted guessing attacks. • We made a deeper investigation of this issue through a direct comparison between schemes offering different combinations of cues, and we found that spatial cues did not significantly contribute to enhance memorability, while verbal cues made a significant contribution in this regard. • We plan to explore this issue deeper through a field study in a real-life setting and identify more ways for actively compelling users to engage with the interaction activity. • In particular, we examine the impact of using memory cues, including spatial cues in which images in a portfolio are shown in the same position each time and verbal cues in which each image is presented with a phrase or fact related to the image. • To explore the impact of cues and user interaction on graphical recognition, we design a control condition for face recognition, in which the images in a portfolio remain the same but randomly positioned each time that portfolio is loaded, as in Passfaces. • In this paper, we aim to understand the impact of spatial and verbal cues in improving the memorability of cognometric graphical passwords. • We would also make a deeper investigation to understand the impact of cues and user interaction in improving the memorability of passwords for the people with different cognitive limitations.
 • A new graphical password authentication technique is proposed which is resistant to shoulder surfing and also other types of possible attacks to some extent. • Our proposed technique is resistant to shoulder surfing to some extent and also to other possible attacks. It is a combination of recognition and recall based approach. • A proposed system provides a strong security against brute force and guessing attacks as it has a good combination of two types of graphical passwords. • It is difficult to guess the password system by a person or by a computer by trying millions of possibilities. In proposed system, we use a click-based graphical password system. • During password creation, User has to upload a image of his choice which is further used for authentication. After this process the same image is displayed to user to select a part of this image . • This selected image area details (co-ordinates of selected area) are stored in system. In user login process, user uploaded image displayed to user, user has to select same part or area of that image that he selected in password creation process. • If not user is unable to login into the system. Therefore this works encouraging users to select more difficult passwords to guess.
 • The top performance of the system-generated mnemonic and picture condition was due, at least in part, to picture creation. • This encoding helps people to remember and retrieve the processed information efficiently over an extended period of time. • JPEG compression uses DCT to transform successive sub-image blocks (8x8 pixels) into 64 DCT coefficients. • Data is inserted into these coefficients‘ insignificant bits. However, altering any single coefficient would affect the entire 64 block pixels. • This method takes statistical global features of the image before attempting to interact with its DCT coefficients. • The statistics will determine where to make the changes. This method applies a random adaptive selection of pixels depending on the cover image. • In a particular block, the pixels with a large local STD (Standard Deviation) are selected. This, in order to avoid areas of uniform color. e.g., smooth areas, blue sky. • Its weak resistance to attacks left researchers wondering where to apply it until they successfully managed to apply it within the frequency domain. DCT is used extensively in video and image lossy compression.

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