Drone Neutralisation Technique in city crowded areas to neutralise drones without hampering other radio signals or other equipment in a certain range

Abstract : Recently, the world witnessed a significant increase in the number of used drones, with a global and continuous rise in the demand for their multi-purpose applications. The pervasive aspect of these drones is due to their ability to answer people’s needs. Drones are providing users with a bird’s eye that can be activated and used almost anywhere and at any time. However, recently, the malicious use of drones began to emerge among criminals and cyber-criminals alike. The probability and frequency of these attacks are both high and their impact can be very dangerous with devastating effects. Therefore, the need for detective, protective and preventive counter-measures is highly required. The aim of this survey is to investigate the emerging threats of using drones in cyber-attacks, along the countermeasures to thwart these attacks. The different uses of drones for malicious purposes are also reviewed, along the possible detection methods. As such, this paper analyzes the exploitation of drones vulnerabilities within communication links, as well as smart devices and hardware, including smart-phones and tablets. Moreover, this paper presents a detailed review on the drone/Unmanned Aerial Vehicle (UAV) usage in multiple domains (i.e civilian, military, terrorism, etc.) and for different purposes. A realistic attack scenario is also presented, which details how the authors performed a simulated attack on a given drone following the hacking cycle. This review would greatly help ethical hackers to understand the existing vulnerabilities of UAVs in both military and civilian domains. Moreover, it allows them to adopt and come up with new techniques and technologies for enhanced UAV attack detection and protection. As a result, various civilian and military anti-drones/UAVs (detective and preventive) countermeasures will be reviewed.
 ? The existing countermeasures need to be analyzed, and new techniques need to be proposed to overcome the limitations of the existing security solutions. ? Existing countermeasures of drones security vulnerabilities and threats are reviewed, in addition to countermeasures in case of compromised (malicious) drones. ? Moreover, there should exist a very strict approach to limit the drones’ ability to gather images and record videos of people and properties without authorized permission.
 ? This imposes a serious problem, especially with bird-related incidents, which can cause serious problems to airplanes engines. ? However, the main problem is its inability to distinguish between birds and drones, which results into a high level of detection failure, despite the use of computer algorithms such as flight patterns. ? The main threat is related to the issue of private property surveillance, where drones can be easily used to breach the physical privacy of people. This is a very serious issue whereby drones are able to break through the geo-boundaries.
 • The proposed jammer was only tested in a closed lab environment with coaxial-wires connecting the drone and controller directly to the jammer on a lab bench, the jammer was thus not tested in a real scenario. • Drones used primarily for photography/video purposes normally use a OFDM type of signal for the video-link, as OFDM offers high throughput and stability which is necessary to stream high quality video. • The purpose of the thesis was to evaluate drone neutralization methods combining jamming and spoofing techniques.
 ? This allowed the minimization of detection errors including false positive and false negative rates, with a critical trade-off between UAVs’ security and performance. ? This scheme ensures real-time detection and isolation of faults in the actuators without the need to reconfigure the controller or affecting its performance. ? Therefore, the dynamic cryptographic approach strikes the right balance between security and performance levels.

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