Software and Hardware Decision Support System for Operators of Electrical Power Systems

Abstract : The unpredictability of processes in electric power systems (EPS) determine complexity of its control. This problem is especially relevant for EPS with renewable energy sources, FACTS and HVDC systems. Despite automatic control development, many issues related to EPS regimes control are solved by power system operators. Decision support systems (DSS) are applying to increase efficiency of operators work. However, existing algorithms in practice are inoperable in some cases: unrealizable decisions are formed or decision cannot be found at all, etc. Another important problem is impossibility to preliminarily verify the proposed solution. For this, operator can additionally use EPS simulators, which are usually limited either by the size of simulated scheme or by details of equipment models. The limitations are a consequence of numerical methods using, which are badly applicable for large-scale power systems simulation. In this paper, a novel DSS has been developed based on a hybrid approach to EPS simulation combining analog, physical and digital techniques. The analog implicit integration of differential equations makes modeling faster than real time. This allows operator to verify more decisions and select the most effective ones. The algorithm for DSS application has been developed, described and confirmed by experimental studies in the article
 ? The existing grid must be upgraded, otherwise the generation of renewable energy will be put on hold, the internal energy market will develop slower, and energy efficiency and savings will be missed. ? The consortium highlighted the need of an energy management system at a macro and micro level considering that the existing control strategies were not always giving the optimal results. ? Information systems that support themselves on artificial intelligence techniques and consider knowledge and reasoning (rules) can be a solution for power flow computation, optimization, and planning.In power systems (PS), DSSs are more and more studied in the last years when variable energy renewable sources generate in power grids.
 ? It is important to note that the ERDP is dynamic by nature, given that new emergency orders may arrive in an unpredictable manner, changing the inputs of the problem and, thus, requir- ing a real time and continuous decision-making process. ? The decision problem that must be solved by system operators working at the utility company is called the emergency dispatching and routing problem (EDRP) and can be stated as follows. ? The next step in the development process of the DSS was the design of the user interface, where special attention has been given to provide to the user visualization tools, such as maps and graphs, which are valuable for assisting her/him in the decision-making process given the spatial and temporal complexity of the problem at hand.
 • Power system planning is very challenging and a framework for a decision-making aid was proposed in. • For the given microgrid, a set of specific rules were designed. The rules tackle the possibilities of energy connection of the specific proposed microgrid. • The proposed decision support system is based on a decision table with five rules that are explained in detail in respect to the implemented microgrid. • The experimental results showed the application of the proposed rules and it have demonstrated the validity of the approach in terms of energy cost reduction, as well as an efficient use of the produced renewable energy with the battery deployment.
 ? The assessment of the EPDS reliability is done by a set of reliability indices, whose definitions and forms of calculation can be found in Ref. ? In general, the reliability indices are measurements of the system performance and represent the frequency, duration, and magnitude of the interruptions of the electric energy supply. ? Therefore, because the state transitioning in Redux is done by functions (i.e. reducers) instead of event emitters as in the original Flux architecture, the Redux architecture does not have the concept of a dispatcher and allows easier composing of reducers. ? In fact, due to the several qualities of Redux compared to other alternatives architectures, such as simplicity, scalability, and pre- dictability, it has been chosen as the basis architecture of the proposed DSS.

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