Optimal Defense Resources Allocation for Power System Based on Bounded Rationality Game Theory Analysis

Abstract : Power utility allocates defense resources to prevent unscheduled load shedding due to transmission line failure caused by the malicious physical attacks. Game theory explains the interaction between the defender and the attacker, overcoming the shortage of unilateral vulnerability analysis. Different from previous researches typically assuming the players are rational and the total defense resources are fixed, this paper investigates the bounded rationality and allows variable total defense resources aiming for a higher level of practicability. Stochastic response to strategies of the bounded rational attacker is described by the Quantal Response Equilibrium (QRE) model. A two-layer defense resources allocation optimization framework is established to obtain both optimal total defense resources and optimal resource distribution, and we design a combined power-of-two and dichotomy (CPTD) algorithm for solution. We also explore the multiple properties of bounded rational behaviors in the attack-defense game. Besides, a unified resources allocation framework of bilateral players is established, which advantages in both cost and reward calculations. To the knowledge of the authors, this work is more general and more practical than previous relevant publications. The experimental studies on the IEEE 14-bus system and the IEEE 118-bus system empirically justify the improvements by our modeling and solution approaches.
 ? The non-cooperative stages are presented starting with the suitable non-cooperative game against the existing attack. ? Apparently, the same steps are executed as in the cooperative process but starting from the check step that determines whether the node is benevolent, malicious, or even selfish. ? In addition, the non-cooperative process omits two steps. The first step is calculating the cooperation, reputation, and security level parameters. ? In fact, the dynamic Bayesian model represents the more realistic approach that allows the network defender to continuously update his decision for the existing malicious nodes.
 ? In each area, the state-of-the-art contributions are gathered and a systematic treatment, using game theory, of some of the most relevant problems for future power systems is provided. ? The objective of noncooperative game theory is to provide algorithms and techniques suitable for solving such optimization problems and characterizing their outcome, notably when the players are making their action choices noncooperatively (and independently), i.e., without any coordination or communication. ? In classical power grids, it is common to optimize the system by defining and solving a system-level optimization problem based on a centralized objective function.
 • In , a game theoretic approach is proposed to address the passive DoS attack that causes malfunction of the forwarding mechanism of sensor nodes at which the nodes agree to forward packets but fail to do so. • The proposed model aims at achieving the optimal signal-to-noise ratio (SNR) in WSNs. • The proposed model obtains the optimal sleep and wake up mode for the participant sensor nodes based on the bargaining NE by treating the selfish nodes that conserve energy through blocking packets with high probability.
 ? Moreover, the use of Nash bargaining for improving the performance of a two-load game is also discussed in . ? We note that, in many cases of interest, the work in provides algorithms for finding equilibrium solutions which are based on known algorithms such as those used in classical convex or mixed-integer optimization. ? For example, one can leverage the already existing power lines in the distribution network and adopt PLC for advanced metering infrastructures, however, to do so, many challenges such as reliability and performance need to be addressed. ? In contrast, for long range transmission, wireless techniques may provide a better alternative due to the possibility of adopting advanced approaches such as cognitive radio or cooperative communications

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