Future of Electrical Aircraft Energy Power Systems An architecture review

Abstract : This paper presents and in-depth analysis of AllElectric-Aircraft (AEA) architectures. The aim of this work is to provide a global vision of the current AEA state of art, to estimate main technological gaps and drivers and to identify the most promising architecture configuration for future electrical aircraft in the context of a twin propeller 20 MW aircraft. The comparison between architectures is done based on three different figures of merit: reliability, efficiency and specific power density. The methodology presented and the trade studies are applied to a narrowbody aircraft of 20 MW, equivalent to an Airbus A320, and following current efforts of government agencies to achieve cleaner air mobility within the next two decades.
 ? Albeit the feasibility and availability of the MEA concept is debatable and is still in question today, a revamped interest in the MEA initiative started in the early 1990s, when the US Air Force began several research programs concerning MEA. ? In particular, these programs focused on improving reliability, fault tolerant capability and power quality of existing MEA systems, with the final purpose of reducing both fuel burn and weight of aircraft secondary power systems . ? An immediate consequence of the MEA concept is the significant increase (in the absolute numbers) of the required electric power.
 ? As the aircraft travelling (ground) speed begun to exceed 280km/h (around 1934), the drag forces related to wind-driven generators started to become a significant issue. ? This complex hydromechanical unit introduced reliability issues, due to increased component count (with several moving parts), which needed frequent maintenance. ? As a consequence, at high altitude, a lower voltage (with respect to ground level) is necessary to sustain electric arcing, which is the cause of premature brushes/commutator wear out and reliability issues.
 • Some topology had been proposed in to integrate fuel cell system into aircraft EPS. One of parallel architecture is depicted . In this case, bi-directional DC/DC converter is employed. • Such as electromagnetic compatibility (EMC), power density, harmonics, high voltage contactors, solid state power controller [38] and so on. • To meet and finally triumph these challenges, researchers had proposed many effective way, such as SiC semiconductors and optimal design at the system level. An the end of 1970’s, the idea of using electricity as dominant power source emerged and during this period the concept of More Electric Aircraft was proposed
 ? Based on the analysis, the most promising EPS architectures are those that reach a good trade off among the three FoM. ? Parallel hybrid and series hybrid EPS architectures, using fuel cell as ESS are the four cases with best performance . ? As regards ac EPS architectures, it has been assumed that ac-ac converters must achieve a highperformance (i.e., very high reliability, over 99% efficiency and high specific power density). ? These requirements stress the design of this component making it extremely difficult to achieve the requirements and thus falling short in comparison to simple dc EPS architectures

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