Suggest a solution to help municipal bodies maximize solid waste collection with their given resources

Abstract : Municipal solid waste management is one of the major challenges that cities in developing countries are facing. Although waste collection services are critical to build a smart city, the focus of both scholarship and action/activism has been more on the utilization of waste than on collection. We devised a choice experiment to elicit the preferences of municipal residents with regard to the various attributes of solid waste collection services in the Bharatpur Metropolitan City of Nepal. The study showed that households identify waste collection frequency, timing of door-to-door waste collection services, and cleanliness of the streets as the critical elements of municipal waste collection that affect their welfare and willingness to pay. While almost all households (95%) were participating in the waste collection service in the study area, more than half (53%) expressed dissatisfaction with the existing service. Women were the main actors engaged in waste collection and disposal at household level. The results of the choice analysis suggest that households prefer a designated waste collection time with waste collection bins placed at regular intervals on the streets for use by pedestrians who often throw garbage on the streets in the absence of bins. For these improvements, households were willing to pay an additional service fee of 10–28% on top of what they were already paying. The study also finds that municipal waste collection can be improved through the involvement of Tole Lane Committees in designing the timing and frequency of the service and by introducing a system of progressive tariffs based on the number of storeys per house.
 ? The circular economy can play an important role in reducing materials use for construction projects, as well as reducing GHG emissions and energy and water demand of existing buildings. ? To implement these overarching plans, G20 countries are scaling up the use of existing and new policy instruments, including market, regulatory, education and information-based instruments, as well as public financial support and co-operation across value chains. ? A clear vision for the circular economy can address the fragmentation of existing initiatives and ensure continuity beyond political cycles.
 ? Municipal solid waste (MSW) is a critical environmental issue in urban areas. ? Municipal residents are aware of the environmental and health issues associated with MSW due to both to widening access to electronic media and increased levels of education and awareness. ? The municipal authority has to either cover the cost of waste management from other sources at the expense of other public services or face environmental problems in the city due to neglect of solid waste management.
 • Municipal solid waste incineration (MSWI) is the burning of waste in a controlled process within a specific facility that has been built for this purpose. • The main purpose of the paper is to provide a comprehensive view of the decentralized approach to solid waste management along with the appropriate technologies to solve the problem of processing and treatment of waste. • Farmers generally use urea for agricultural purposes without taking care of fertility of soil.
 ? There is a gap between the demand and supply of these services in terms of quality and efficiency. ? An efficient design requires prior information about the parameters, which can be obtained through various methods. ? Efficient waste management is fundamental to improve the service to citizen. ? In addition, users of smart city services have about the utility, safety, accessibility and efficiency of those services.

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