Mechanism for linking of works under convergence in Rurban with multiple DBs (e.g.MGNREGS, PMUY, DDU-GKY, PMAY etc.)

Abstract : India’s development trajectory is marked by growing economic prosperity but high inequality, which often exacerbates the existing rural– urban divide. One of the current policy instruments to address this divide is the National Rurban Mission, which aims to improve infrastructure and service provision, facilitate regional development and attract investment in rural areas. Against the backdrop of growing rural unrest on one hand and emerging evidence of unsustainable development in the urban on the other, we examine the National Rural Mission and its discursive underpinnings. We find that while the mission and its stated aims are a promising step to improve regional development, its focus on ‘smart villages’ and seeing urbanisation as the only development model, undermines the strengths and challenges in rural India. We highlight ways in which the mission can avoid some past pitfalls of development interventions in India while strengthening its mandate of facilitating inclusive regional development.
 ? This may include the history of the street, the existing social, environmental, architectural and structural conditions, existing infrastructure, policies and regulations, project size, zoning and land use and its potential future as a place. ? Much can be achieved by adding the biophilic elements of green walls, green roofs and green balconies to building envelopes. ? Considerable benefit is also possible by adding elements to existing urban streets and road reserves: tree pits, street trees, linear gardens, pocket parks, bioswales, rain gardens, daylighting streams, and biophilic elements integrated with street furniture.
 ? The larger concern this mission aims to address is growing rural to urban migration and its consequences: increasing pressure on urban infrastructure and services, issues of illegal tenure and encroachment, and questions around who has a right to a city. ? The programme also overlooks structural issues undermining farming livelihoods and their profitability. ? This sets up the mission to suffer from common issues of development interventions such as elite capture, inequitable access and token participation.
 • Potential benefits of the biophilic streets have been presented; however, it is also necessary to address potential issues and trade-offs associated with the proposed concept. • A biophilic street as a green infrastructure project would require a holistic economic analysis to prove the feasibility of a proposed design scheme. • Elements such as window boxes, planter boxes with climbers, hanging baskets and miniature rain gardens were proposed.
 ? Urban designers, planners and civil engineers have conceived and developed regulatory frameworks for streets to enable efficiency, security and, most of all, the rapid conveyancing of traffic, both public and private. ? The focus of urban streets is changing from ensuring traffic movement efficiency to a more peoplecentred design that puts pedestrians first, then cyclists and transit, and lastly private motorised vehicles. ? In order to improve the efficiency of the green roof and wall systems, the run-off from the roof was collected into cisterns and then used to irrigate the green walls with drip irrigation.

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