Water Availability based Crop-specific

Abstract : In recent years, our insight into these shifts and their impact on water availability has increased. However, a similar detailed understanding of the seasonal pattern in water demand is surprisingly absent. This hampers a proper assessment of water stress and ways to cope and adapt. In this study, the seasonal pattern of irrigation-water demand resulting from the typical practice of multiple cropping in South Asia was accounted for by introducing double cropping with monsoon-dependent planting dates in a hydrology and vegetation model. Crop yields were calibrated to the latest state-level statistics of India, Pakistan, Bangladesh and Nepal. The improvements in seasonal land use and cropping periods lead to lower estimates of irrigation-water demand compared to previous model-based studies, despite the net irrigated area being higher. Crop irrigation-water demand differs sharply between seasons and regions; in Pakistan, winter (rabi) and monsoon summer (kharif) irrigation demands are almost equal, whereas in Bangladesh the rabi demand is ~ 100 times higher. Moreover, the relative importance of irrigation supply versus rain decreases sharply from west to east. Given the size and importance of South Asia improved regional estimates of food production and its irrigation-water demand will also affect global estimates. In models used for global water resources and food-security assessments, processes like multiple cropping and monsoon-dependent planting dates should not be ignored.
 ? Boosting the potential of existing rainfed areas reduces the need for new large-scale irrigation development, which can generate adverse environmental and social impacts. ? With the loss of the delta habitats, wetlands now exist mainly in areas where agricultural drainage has occurred. ? Moving toward sustainable river basin management requires much more emphasis on developing, managing, and maintaining collaborative relationships for river basin governance, building on existing organizations, customary practices, and administrative structures.
 ? In many cities today, poor or nonexistent urban planning and enforcement of land-use regulations compound water management problems. ? In adapting such approaches, economic, financial, social political and institutional dimensions of the problem of access to water become as relevant as the physical availability of water. ? These multiple dimensions of the problem have been captured in the dual concept of physical and economic water scarcity.
 • Adapting water management to modify the vector habitat is another approach that has often been proposed in biomedical studies as an easy and cheap measure for vector control. • Water productivity serves as a plausible option for quantifying the extent of sustainable water use in agriculture and thereby proposing suitable economic policies to ensure intelligent and informed allocation of the scarce resource among crops to meet the present demand without foregoing the needs of the future generation. • The purpose of this study, we apply few filters on the larger data set to arrive at areas that represent dominant districts where sugarcane is grown.
 ? While water-use efficiency improvements in rice receive much attention, paddy fields being the epitome of excessive water consumption, rice is actually not the most water-demanding crop in the region. ? That seasonal water demand is a factor of crop-specific seasonal consumption, availability of rainfall and different sources of water supply, i.e. groundwater or surface water, and the irrigation efficiencies connected to these sources. ? More application- and water-source-specific water use efficiency values in models would improve the estimation of gross water demand.

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