Scientific method for determining age Agriculture and Food & of boiled rice

Abstract : Rice ageing commences during preharvest and continues with the postharvest storage. It dramatically involves the changes in physical and physicochemical properties of the rice grain such as cooking, pasting, and thermal properties. The present report reviews and reveals the effect of rice ageing on the changes of rice physical properties. The studies discovered that, during ageing, cooked aged rice had a harder texture and much fluffier than fresh rice and also less in stickiness and adhesiveness. The viscosities such as final and setback viscosity of aged rice increased dramatically after the short to intermediate term of storage. These were affected by two major factors such as time and temperature of storage. During ageing, aged rice grain at higher temperature and longer time showed a significant increase hardness of cooked rice, peak temperature, and the conclusion temperature. However, the pasting and the breakdown viscosity of rice decreased with longer aging times.
 ? Some of rice components namely rice bran and rice bran oil contained some minor components which are reported to have some biological effects. ? The unique taste of rice provides easy way to combine rice with the other food to achieve better taste and nutritional balance. ? High-amylose rice varieties with similar chemical composition including amylase content that were cooked under the same conditions had differences in the starch digestion rate and the glycemic and insulin responses.
 ? The storage conditions are important in the aging process and they could impact on the number of changes in rice physical properties such as textural properties, pasting, color, flavor, composition and eating quality. ? Rice during storage undergoes numerous changes in its physical properties and chemical composition, and these changes cause impact on rice cooking and eating quality. ? It is well documented that starch-lipid complex formation impacts on rice pasting behavior. Peak temperature and peak width appear to be the most notable impacts of storage of aging rice.
 • As rice aged, it is proposed that the denaturation of protein bodies occurred during the aging process, and this denaturation would be associated with the exposure of hydrophobic groups of protein molecules, which leading to a decrease in the extractability of proteins for each fraction. • We propose that release of free phenolic acids alters integrity of the cell wall and at the same time the phenolic acids exert an effect via their antioxidant activity on the formation of FFA that can further complex with amylose during storage.
 ? Rice is typically consumed as cooked and although a minor amount is used as an ingredient in the several processed foods. ? The determination of the percentage of syneresis from the freeze-thawed flour gels are used to evaluate the ability of the starch to withstand the undesirable physical changes which occur during freezing and thawing. ? Cooking method used is conventional method (a combination of boiling and steaming) and modern method (rice cooker steaming). Rice used in this study were black rice and brown rice with broken. skin.

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