Abstract : This paper covers the design and implementation of an intelligent traffic management system for an isolated intersection. The vehicular traffic management system employs Field Programmable Gate Array (FPGA) as the central decision-making unit and combines its speed and high number of I/O with other system components such as the ESP8266 Wi-Fi module, to record real-time traffic information and apportion green time for each phase of traffic signal. The design and implementation incorporate three different operational modes namely, fixed time mode, sensor actuated mode and remote control mode, to alleviate vehicular traffic congestion and also reduce the risk of accidents at intersections. The incorporation of remote control mode, which enables an authorized personnel to remotely control the traffic, using a cloud-based application running on a portable device, makes this system different from previous works. Simulation using a prototype of the model on a model intersection, shows that the system can reduce waiting time and increase throughput at the intersections.
 • It is compatible with existed traffic signal controller so that it can be fast and cost-effectively deployed. • In order to fast and cost-effectively deploy the STSC system, our idea is that the RSU controller has to be compatible with the existed infrastructure so that there is no need to replace the traditional traffic controllers. • However, some limitations exist for the use of intelligent traffic control, for example avoiding traffic jams is considered beneficial for both the environment and the economy, but improvement in traffic flow can lead to an increase in demand. • The major problem of the existing traffic light systems is that the transition timing slots are fixed within the code. • There are many models for traffic simulation in our research, we use the IR sensor to optimize the traffic light controller in the city and pay attention to the visual monitoring developed using the PIC microcontroller.
 • The problem of vehicular traffic congestion is one that accompanies development and urbanization in every country. • Urbanization is inevitable and hence its accompanying road traffic congestion problem, various ways must be devised to reduce the road traffic congestion as much as possible. • One attempt by government to handle the congestion problem is to construct more roads. • The work seeks to address two main problems, heavy traffic jams during peak hours and allocation of green-time to roads when there is no traffic on them using image processing based traffic light controller. • The ultimate research issues that researchers seek to address in the area of intelligent traffic control include, but not limited to, how to reduce traffic congestion; avoid crashes; automatically give right of way to emergency vehicles; provide road traffic information to users; allow remote control of traffic at intersections; and coordinate the traffic flow through adjacent intersections.
 • The proposed STSC system is designed by a unified system architecture with an RSU middleware which organized by modular functional design. • The proposed algorithm is innovative, the lack of some traffic protection measures, such as maximum green time and minimum green time, may lead to unsafe cases for pedestrians. • In order to quickly and cost-efficiently deploy the proposed STSC system, one key successful factor is that it should be compatible with legacy traffic signal controllers. • In this paper, a multi-modal smart traffic control system (STSC) for the infrastructure in the smart city is proposed, which can be widely applied for the intelligent transportation system in smart city applications. • The major components in the proposed STSC include RSU controller, OBU, signal controller, and cloud center.
 • Thus, effective and efficient management systems should be developed to manage increasing traffic, especially at busy intersections, to maximize throughput and minimize crashes. • The human traffic conductors are however not efficient since the humans, though supposed to act as feedback control system. • The existing controller is not very efficient and has led to car waiting times as high as 6 minutes and long queue length on the West – East and East – West roads during rush hour. • The human traffic controllers are used mostly as a solution to the congestion caused by drastic change in traffic dynamics; malfunctioning traffic signals or to give right of way to priority/emergency vehicles such as fire trucks, ambulances, police responding to duty call, etc. • The remote control mode is used to grant access to emergency vehicles and whenever it becomes necessary for human conductors to step in (example, due to sensor malfunctioning). • The fixedtime mode is used to control traffic during maintenance or when there is sensor failure. • This mode is used when there is the need to override the control sequence for emergency vehicles, a convoy, etc.

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