Quality assurance & traceability of milk supplied by unorganized sector

Abstract : Food processing industries are assuming greater importance and processed food is now not a matter of choice but it is a necessity. As a result there is greater awareness of safety concerns, emerging risks and challenges in the context of food products. Consumers want guarantees for food characteristics, thus, calling for transparency and effective response in case of any food related health problem. This paper presents a framework for transparency, traceability and information flow for management of dairy supply chain networks. This paper follows a case study approach and presents findings from three types of dairy supply chains as prevalent in India. The paper analyses complexity of dairy products as well as processes in terms of intrinsic and extrinsic factors and their effects on the underlying dairy supply chain networks (DSCN). Governance mechanisms dovetailing various stages of the DSCN are presented in terms of their gaps and adequacy. Key components of the presented frameworks are harmonization of national standards with codex standards, hygiene control, strengthening quality control systems, enhancing information flow across stages, animal health care, disease free zones and formation of cooperatives of small dairy processors (CSDP) in line with the present dairy cooperative society (DCS). CSDP aims at collective action and public-private partnerships by the unorganized sector units to face the competition from large organized processors of dairy products in terms of quality, transparency, traceability and information flow. Transparency of a DSCN is the extent to which all its stakeholders have a shared understanding of and access to the product related information without loss, noise, delay and distortion. Given the perishable nature of dairy products, an effective traceability system is an important tool not only to manage food quality and safety risks, but also to promote the development of effective dairy supply chain management. This paper contributes to the nascent literature on transparency and traceability issues of dairy supply chain networks. Findings would be useful for policy makers in framing standards and effective regulations. Analysis of complexity would be useful for dairy industry managers.
 ? In the proposed framework collective action is through formation of cooperatives of small dairy processors (CSDP) on the lines of existing dairy cooperative societies (DCS) by the unorganized small dairy units and halwaiis. ? The CSDP is to formulate standards and procedures for manufacture of traditional dairy products in accordance with existing national and international food standards. ? There is a need to continuously evolve and upgrade existing food safety standards which are to be made more scientific and to harmonize them with codex standards.
 ? Consumers want guarantees for food characteristics, thus, calling for transparency and effective response in case of any food related health problem. ? The problem of coordinating with many small farmers is exacerbated by their geographical dispersion, low educational levels and poor access to capital and information. ? The small-holders in the FSC face problems in meeting the standards, as well as in delivering a regular supply to buyers, due to a number of interrelated factors.
 • The proposed framework is to facilitate India to compete with other countries in global and domestic market post free and liberalized world trade of food and dairy products. • The first framework proposed in the present study is to enhance quality, safety, transparency and traceability in Indian dairy supply chains. • The second framework proposed in the present study is to enhance transparency and traceability in unorganized sector, small dairies and halwaiis through information flow and compliance to the food standard and governance mechanisms.
 ? When farmers group together to sell milk, for example, it is easier for innovations regarding milk quality to be spread and for this quality to be maintained through the collection centres, which may increase the technical and financial efficiency of the producers. ? All three processors used both butterfat and solids non-fat as parameters for the QBMPS, though the levels of bonus payments were slightly different for each processor. ? The parameters used for the QBMPS are the TPC, the presence of antibiotic residues in the milk, adulteration (measured by the freezing point), and the total solids

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