Need to develop digitally the dynamic model to integrate the impact of climate change (CC) indicators with assessment of vulnerability and adaptation at localized scale for agriculture sector

Abstract : Agriculture and climate change are internally correlated with each other in various aspects, as climate change is the main cause of biotic and abiotic stresses, which have adverse effects on the agriculture of a region. The land and its agriculture are being affected by climate changes in different ways, e.g., variations in annual rainfall, average temperature, heat waves, modifications in weeds, pests or microbes, global change of atmospheric CO2 or ozone level, and fluctuations in sea level. The threat of varying global climate has greatly driven the attention of scientists, as these variations are imparting negative impact on global crop production and compromising food security worldwide. According to some predicted reports, agriculture is considered the most endangered activity adversely affected by climate changes. To date, food security and ecosystem resilience are the most concerning subjects worldwide. Climate-smart agriculture is the only way to lower the negative impact of climate variations on crop adaptation, before it might affect global crop production drastically. In this review paper, we summarize the causes of climate change, stresses produced due to climate change, impacts on crops, modern breeding technologies, and biotechnological strategies to cope with climate change, in order to develop climate resilient crops. Revolutions in genetic engineering techniques can also aid in overcoming food security issues against extreme environmental conditions, by producing transgenic plants.
 ? Therefore the paper reviews existing interpretations, concepts and frameworks of vulnerability approaches in the climate change context. ? However, while there are agreed indicators to measure the impact of climate change, there seem to exist no agreed metrics to describe vulnerability (e.g. of crop yields or agricultural income). ? As climate change brings new uncertainties, risks and changes to already existing risks, one of the most efficient ways for agriculture to adapt is increasing its resilience.
 ? These climatic problems severely distress plant development and yield, produce enormous responses, comprising molecular, biochemical, physiological, and morphological modifications. ? Food security and safety are threatened by the severe weather conditions and it is not a recent problem. But formerly, no consideration was adopted to tackle this problem. ? Because of climate change, food quality, supply, and safety are still the biggest problems for researchers.
 • One objective of climate change research is not to propose testable long-range hypotheses rather to provide indicative forecasts to guide pre-emptive policy-making. • It is important to assess in advance any risks to health from proposed technological adaptations. • The benefit-cost criterion is straightforward: if the winners under a proposed policy value the change more highly than do the losers, it is said that the policy has positive net benefits and enhances efficiency.
 ? Genetic divergence analysis is used for polymorphism, inbreeding, assessment, assortment, and recombination to attain plant perfection, and is amongst the main aspects for defining accomplished inbreeding. ? In genome editing technology site specific endonucleases are used comprising of zinc-finger nucleases (ZFNs), transcription activator like effector nucleases (TALENs), and CRISPR-Cas9. ? The CRISPR/Cas9 strategy was used to develop tomato mutant lines which showed a considerably enhanced concentration of proline, malondialdehyde, and H2O2.

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