Development of business models for collection and utilization of single use plastics and various other industrial wastes

Abstract : This study reviews the scientific literature for business models contributing to sustainable plastic management and suggests avenues for future research. We define sustainable plastic management (SPM) as any technique along the waste hierarchy seeking to minimize the environmental damage of plastic material. Limited cases were found during the literature review, whereas many more SPM business models exist in practice, signaling a research gap. Forty-four scientifically documented business models were identified and analyzed on the basis of business model component, sustainability, level of waste hierarchy and sustainable business model archetype. Our results suggest that business models focus on recycling and creating value from waste, as well as the development of bioplastic. Few cases qualified as triple bottom line businesses, as many reported environmental and economic, but not social, benefits. Circular economy business models were found in a quarter of all cases. Finally, we present a synthesis of the barriers and opportunities for sustainable plastic management by the private sector. Drivers include maintaining competitive advantage, accessing green customers, collaboration with stakeholders, and achieving efficiency improvements. Barriers frequently mentioned were high costs, complexity of new systems, supply chain lock-in and low customer buy-in. Further research should expand the scale of SPM research, identify the enabling conditions for sustainable plastic management, and determine environmental impact.
 ? This highlights the urgent need to restructure existing recycling systems and policies on the production of plastic and its disposal. ? A variety of regulatory and legislative tools exists, aimed at controlling, reducing and managing the use of plastics, with a particular emphasis on single-use plastics. ? Existing legislation consists mainly of levies, bans, and voluntary efforts through the 3R rule: reduce, reuse and recycle. The features that are essential to biota are identical, as many organisms thrive in small bodies of water that exist at or just below the surface, rendering them essentially aquatic organisms.
 ? The problem of plastics is situated in the global challenge of waste management which now confronts humanity. ? This development has since motivated greater global efforts into examining and exploring new technologies and innovative solutions to the problem. ? It is useful to noted that these same application advantages which have lend to the generation of massive waste and pollution issues at the global level .
 • The proposed approach aims mostly at educating the public to the dangers posed by plastic debris, especially in aquatic systems. • In the proposed scenario, the use of intentionally added microplastics in consumer or professional products of any kind would be severely restricted. • Multiple technologies exist for this purpose, such as thermochemical and catalytic conversion approaches. The non-profit company was closed but no other dedicated purpose was identified for the levy’s revenues.
 ? The recovered plastic is made into goods with similar performance to those from virgin plastics. However, the quality of the scrap reintroduced has a bearing on the performance of the resulting product. ? Plastic recycling processes are largely focused on primary and secondary recycling methods thereby calling for growth in adoption of other recycling processes to improve the recycling capacity and efficiency. ? There are several techniques that can be applied to separate and sort plastic solid waste and these should be applied in the most efficient way during a short period of time so as to be cost effective.

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