Develop an innovative solution to conversion of excess milk to usable products

Abstract : The dairy industry generates excessive amounts of waste and by-products while it gives a wide range of dairy products. Alternative biotechnological uses of these wastes need to be determined to aerobic and anaerobic treatment systems due to their high chemical oxygen demand (COD) levels and rich nutrient (lactose, protein and fat) contents. This work presents a critical review on the fermentation-engineering aspects based on defining the effective use of dairy effluents in the production of various microbial products such as biofuel, enzyme, organic acid, polymer, biomass production, etc. In addition to microbial processes, techno-economic analyses to the integration of some microbial products into the bio refinery and feasibility of the related processes have been presented. Overall, the inclusion of dairy wastes into the designed microbial processes seems also promising for commercial approaches. Especially the digestion of dairy wastes with cow manure and/or different substrates will provide a positive net present value (NPV) and a payback period (PBP) less than 10 years to the plant in terms of biogas production.
 ? A drawback exists in lactase production that related to its intracellular nature and rises downstream processing costs. ? The studies on valorization of dairy waste, some studies also focus on integration of the valorization process into the existing dairy plants. ? To determine how dairy waste can be used more efficiently in biorefinery, develop a bioprocess design to improve the existing dairy/food industry by identifying new processes to be integrated into the dairy industry.
 ? These effluents, particularly high-fat-containing substrates, can cause serious organic loading problems in the local sewage drainage system. ? Due to high organic compositions of dairy industry by-products, direct disposal of these products can cause environ-mental problems. ? The most striking of thedairy industry wastes is whey, which is discarded from milk and threatens environmental problems and human health.
 • The proposed technology will create new competitive balanced consumer dairy products and preventive products for specialized and rehabilitation nutrition, as well as biotech products with desired functional properties. • The use of hydrolysates is in demand mainly as a component of infant milk formula for preventive and therapeutic purposes, but the demand for them is met mainly with imported products. • However, one of the criteria for the country’s food security is the level of self-sufficiency in agricultural products.
 ? Among these, whey powder provides higher efficiency than whey in microbial processes because it contains high concentrations of lactose and other nutrients. ? However, diauxic growth of microorganisms in the presence of both glucose and galactose after hydrolysis reduces the ethanol production efficiency. ? It seems modern biological treatments are more efficient than traditional ones for the recovery and conversion of wastes into products and energy resources.

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