Abstract : Mobile ad-hoc networks (MANET) is a network mode that does not depend on network infrastructure and central access. The fast and flexible networking mode of MANET renders its wide applications in specific scenarios. However, rapidly changing topology and open channels bring potential security problems. In this paper, we proposed an active-routing authentication scheme (AAS) based on the characteristics of active routing protocols. We formally demonstrated that the AAS is effective against selective forwarding attack, false routing attack, byzantine attack and route spoofing attack using the BAN logic considering the possibility of malicious nodes mingling in MANET. Experimental results show that the AAS is compatible with multiple active routing protocols and it is able to increase the packet delivery rate by 33.9%, with an average increase of 18.4% in the network containing some malicious nodes. Furthermore, the AAS is robust which remains the average network connection rate reach 1.6 times of the collusion attack prevention-OLSR(Cap-OLSR) protocol and preserves 79.2% of the network performance in simulation experiments with attacks from malicious nodes.
 ? It may be very difficult, if not impossible, for a node to acquire t existing nodes in the network in its neighborhood for evaluation of its trust. ? It also performs well against cooperative attacks when sufficient level of trust exists among some nodes before the network deployment. ? Such nodes can generate new routing messages to advertise non-existent links, provide incorrect link state information, and flood other nodes with routing traffic, thus inflicting Byzantine failure in the network.
 ? In spite of the observed merits, shared key method has problems in the SAR approach as the possibility of more malicious agents over other nodes is considered by classifying under high security for accessing to the secret group keys. ? Various attack behaviors, such as, selective forwarding attack, false routing attack, byzantine attack and so on cause the security problems of MANET increasingly prominent. ? Unless the unauthenticated node actively moves away from the network, the impact on other nodes in the network is inevitable.
 • Several secure routing protocols have been proposed for MANETs based on cryptographic mechanisms. • In this paper, an efficient key exchange protocol is proposed for MANETs that can be easily integrated with a routing protocol thereby providing an integrated framework of routing and security and solving the routing security interdependency cycle. • The proposed protocol integrates a key exchange protocol with routing in a MANET and thus solves the routing-security interdependency cycle.
 ? When there is no attack, the TOHIP protocol maintains normal route lookup performance, and in the presence of the attack, TOHIP resists the attack with lower overhead and shorter route convergence time. ? Design of an efficient and reliable node authentication protocol for such networks is a particularly challenging task since the nodes are battery-driven and resource constrained. ? The protocol is light-weight, efficient and alleviates the routingsecurity interdependency cycle.

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